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The War Garden Victorious - Appendix 1I
Victory Edition 1919 HOME CANNING & DRYING of Vegetables & Fruits





How the National War Garden Commission Came into Being


The Story of the War Garden


How War Gardens Helped


Types of War Gardens


Uncle Sam's First War Garden


How Big Business Helped


How the Railroads Helped


The Army of School Gardeners


Community Gardening


Cooperation in Gardening


War Gardens as City Assets


The Part Played by Daylight Saving


The Future of War Gardening


Conserving the Garden Surplus


Community Conservation


Conservation by Drying


Why We Should Use Dried Foods


The Future of Dehydration


Cooperation of the Press
  Chapter 19 - Cartoon Illustrations


  "War Gardening,"
Victory Edition, 1919
Cover / Letters / 1 / 2 / 3 / 4 / 5 / 6 / 7 / 8 / 9 / 10 / 11 / 12 / 13 / 14 / 15 / 16 / 17 / 18 / 19 / 20 / 21 / 22 / 23 / 24 / 25 / 26 / 27 / 28 / 29 / 30 / 31 / 32
More Letters / Back

  "Home Canning and Drying," Victory Edition, 1919
Cover / Letters / 1 / 2 / 3 / 4 / 5 / 6 / 7 / 8 / 9 / 10 / 11 / 12 / 13 / 14 / 15 / 16 / 17 / 18 / 19 / 20 / 21 / 22 / 23 / 24 / 25 / 26 / 27 / 28 / 29 / 30 / 31 / 32
More Letters / Back

Color Plates

  Sow the Seeds of Victory - Every Garden a Munition PlantWILL YOU HAVE A PART IN VICTORY?

"Every Garden a Munition Plant"

James Montgomery Flagg

  War Garden Victorious Poster - War Gardens Over The TopA Poster Spreading the Idea of Militant War Gardens

Maginel Wright Enright

  War Garden Victorious Poster - Every Garden a Peace PlantA Poster for 1919, Symbolic of Victory

Maginel Wright Enright

  War Garden Victorious Poster - Can Vegetables, Fruits and the Kaiser tooCAN VEGETABLES, FRUIT AND THE KAISER TOO

J. Paul Verrees

A Poster Which Was Used in 1918, and Which, Amended–Following Germany's Defeat–Was Also Forceful in 1919



  We can can vegetables, fruti and the Kaiser too We can can Vegetables Fruit and the Kaiser too



page 7



   2. Screw-top Jars.––Use only enameled, lacquered or vulcanized tops. Screw the top on tightly without the rubber. If the tip of a knife or finer-nail can be inserted under the rim, the tops should not be used for cold-pack canning. If the defect is very slight, however, it may be remedied by pressing a knife handle on the lower edge against a hard surface, thus straightening the offending bulge. Another test is made by putting on the rubber, screwing the top on tightly and then pulling the rubber out. If the rubber returns to place, the top does not fit and should not be used on that jar.

Wire rack for jars.
Fig. 9. Wire rack for jars.

   3. Vacuum seal jars may be tested in the same way as the glass-top jars. See if the tops rock if tapped, when placed on the jar without fastening.


   1. Good Rubber Essential.––Buy new rubbers every year, as rubbers deteriorate from one season to another. A good rubber for cold-pack canning must be such as to stand four hours of continuous boiling or one hour under 10 pounds of steam pressure. The combination of moist heat plus acids and mineral matter in vegetables and fruits tends to break down the rubbers during sterilization. Rubbers kept in a hot or very warm place, as for example, on a shelf near the kitchen range, will deteriorate in quality. Be very particular about the rubbers used. Spoilage of canned goods has been traced frequently to the use of poor rubbers.

Simple test for rubbers.
Fig. 10. Simple test for rubbers. A perfect rubber will show no crease or break after being folded tightly several times.

   2. Testing Rubbers.––It is always well to test rubbers when buying. A good rubber will return to its original size when stretched. It will not crease when bent double and pinched (Fig. 10). It should fit the neck of the jar snugly. It is cheaper to discard a doubtful rubber than to lose a jar of canned goods.

Wire rack for jars.
Fig. 11. Wire rack for jars.


   Vegetables and fruits should be sorted according to color, size and ripeness. This is called grading. It insures the best pack and uniformity of flavor and texture to the canned product, which is always desirable.


   The most important steps in canning are the preliminary steps of blanching, cold-dipping, packing in hot, clean containers, adding hot water at once, then immediately half sealing jars and putting into the sterilizer. Spoilage of products is nearly always due to carelessness in one of these steps. Blanching is necessary with all vegetables and some fruits. It insures thorough cleansing and removes objectionable odors and flavors and excess acids. It starts the flow of coloring matter. It reduces the bulk of greens and causes shrinkage of fruits, increasing the quantity which may be packed in a container, which saves storage space.
   Blanching consists of plunging the vegetables or fruits into boiling water or exposing them to steam for a short time. For blanching in boiling water place them in a wire basket (Fig. 17) or piece of cheesecloth (Fig. 18). The blanching time varies from one to fifteen minutes, as shown in the time-table on page 2, and the products should be kept under water throughout the period. Begin counting time when the articles are first placed in boiling water or steam.
   Spinach and other greens should not be blanched in hot water. They must be blanched in steam to prevent the loss of mineral salts, volatile oils and other valuable substances. To do this place them in a colander and set this into a vessel which has a tightly fitting cover. In this vessel there should be an inch or two of water, but the water must not be allowed to touch the greens (Fig. 12). Another method is to suspend the greens in the closed vessel above an inch or two of water. This may be done in a wire basket or in cheesecloth. Allow the water to boil in the closed vessel fifteen minutes. Excellent results are obtained, also, by the use of a steam cooker or steam pressure canner.

Fig. 12. Use of a colander to blanch greens in steam. The colander is placed in a receptacle with tightly fitting cover. No water should touch the greens.

   When the blanching is complete remove the vegetables or fruits from the boiling water or steam and plunge them once or twice into cold water––the colder the better. This latter process is the Cold Dip. It hardens the pulp under the skin, so that the products are not injured by peeling. It also sets the coloring matter. Do not allow the products to stand in the cold water.
   Always blanch and cold-dip only enough product to fill one or two jars at a time. The blanching and cold-dipping should follow at once when the vegetable or fruit is prepared, and the packing into jars should immediately follow the blanching and cold-dip.

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