The equipment should be bought as early as possible to prevent
disappointment in delivery which is almost certain to follow delay. This
equipment may be ordered through a local dealer or direct from the
manufacturers. The National War Garden Commission publishes a list of
manufacturers which may be had upon application.
Fig. 1. Home-made rack for wash-boiler.
The equipment may be used by the individual members on a schedule
arranged by the committee, or a working force may be appointed to do all the
work, receiving pay in the form of a percentage of the product.
Publicity is important in keeping interest aroused and there should
be a committee to arrange with the local papers for the publication of
information concerning the enterprise. This serves as an incentive to
The National War Garden Commission will send upon application its
pamphlet on Community and Neighborhood Canning and Drying, giving details as
STERILIZATION OF FOOD
The scientist has proved that food decay is caused by
microorganisms, classed as bacteria, yeasts and molds. Success in canning
necessitates the destruction of these organisms. A temperature of 160° to
190° F. will kill yeasts and molds. Bacteria are destroyed at a temperature
of 212° F. held for the proper length of time. The destruction of these
organisms by heat is called sterilization.
Fig. 2. Wash-boiler with rack for jars.
METHODS OF CANNING
There are five principal methods of home canning. These are:
1. Single Period Cold-pack Method.
2. Fractional or Intermittent Sterilization Method.
3. Open Kettle or Hot-pack Method.
4. Cold Water Method.
5. Vacuum Seal Method.
The method recommended for home use is the Single Period
Cold-pack method. It is much the best because of its simplicity and
effectiveness, and in this book detailed instructions are given for its use.
The outlines of the various methods are:
1. Single Period Cold-pack Method: The prepared vegetables or
fruits are blanched in boiling water or live steam, then quickly cold-dipped
and packed at once into hot jars, the contents covered with boiling water or
syrup, and the jars partially sealed and sterilized in boiling water o by
steam pressure. The jars are then sealed tight, tested for leaks and stored.
Full details are given on page 7 and the pages following
Fig. 3. A type of commercial canner for hot-water bath, using
wood, coal, charcoal, chips, cobs, or brush.
2. Fractional or Intermittent Sterilization Method: Vegetables are half
sealed in jars and sterilized for 1 hour or more on each of three successive
days. This method is expensive as to time, labor and fuel and discourages
the home canning of vegetables.
3. Open Kettle or Hot-pack Method: Vegetables or fruits are cooked
in an open kettle and packed in jars. There is always danger of spores and
bacteria being introduced on spoons or other utensils while the jars are
being filled. This method should never be used in canning vegetables. Even
with fruits it is not as desirable as the cold-pack.
4. Cold-water Method: Rhubarb, cranberries, gooseberries, and sour
cherries, because of their acidity are often canned by this method. The
fruits are washed, put in sterilized jars, cold water is added to
overflowing, and the jar is then sealed. This method is not always
successful as the acid content varies with ripeness and the locality in
which the fruits are grown.