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The War Garden Victorious - Appendix 1I
Victory Edition 1919 HOME CANNING & DRYING of Vegetables & Fruits





How the National War Garden Commission Came into Being


The Story of the War Garden


How War Gardens Helped


Types of War Gardens


Uncle Sam's First War Garden


How Big Business Helped


How the Railroads Helped


The Army of School Gardeners


Community Gardening


Cooperation in Gardening


War Gardens as City Assets


The Part Played by Daylight Saving


The Future of War Gardening


Conserving the Garden Surplus


Community Conservation


Conservation by Drying


Why We Should Use Dried Foods


The Future of Dehydration


Cooperation of the Press
  Chapter 19 - Cartoon Illustrations


  "War Gardening,"
Victory Edition, 1919
Cover / Letters / 1 / 2 / 3 / 4 / 5 / 6 / 7 / 8 / 9 / 10 / 11 / 12 / 13 / 14 / 15 / 16 / 17 / 18 / 19 / 20 / 21 / 22 / 23 / 24 / 25 / 26 / 27 / 28 / 29 / 30 / 31 / 32
More Letters / Back

  "Home Canning and Drying," Victory Edition, 1919
Cover / Letters / 1 / 2 / 3 / 4 / 5 / 6 / 7 / 8 / 9 / 10 / 11 / 12 / 13 / 14 / 15 / 16 / 17 / 18 / 19 / 20 / 21 / 22 / 23 / 24 / 25 / 26 / 27 / 28 / 29 / 30 / 31 / 32
More Letters / Back

Color Plates

  Sow the Seeds of Victory - Every Garden a Munition PlantWILL YOU HAVE A PART IN VICTORY?

"Every Garden a Munition Plant"

James Montgomery Flagg

  War Garden Victorious Poster - War Gardens Over The TopA Poster Spreading the Idea of Militant War Gardens

Maginel Wright Enright

  War Garden Victorious Poster - Every Garden a Peace PlantA Poster for 1919, Symbolic of Victory

Maginel Wright Enright

  War Garden Victorious Poster - Can Vegetables, Fruits and the Kaiser tooCAN VEGETABLES, FRUIT AND THE KAISER TOO

J. Paul Verrees

A Poster Which Was Used in 1918, and Which, Amended–Following Germany's Defeat–Was Also Forceful in 1919



  We can can vegetables, fruti and the Kaiser too We can can Vegetables Fruit and the Kaiser too



page 16



   To be satisfactory, jelly must be made from fruit juices containing pectin and acid. Pectin is a substance in the fruit which is soluble in hot water and which, when cooked with sugar and acid, gives, after cooling, the right consistency to jelly.
   Fruits to be used should be sound, just ripe or slightly under-ripe, and gathered but a short time. Wash them, remove stems and cut large fruits into pieces. With juicy fruits add just enough water to prevent burning while cooking. In using fruits which are not juicy cover them with water. Cook slowly until the fruits are soft. Strain through a bag made of flannel or two thicknesses of cheesecloth or similar material.


   To determine if the juice contains pectin, boil 1 tablespoonful and cool. To this add 1 tablespoonful of grain or wood alcohol and mix, gently rotating the glass. Let stand for a while. If a solid mass––which is pectin––collects, this indicates that in making jelly one part of sugar or sugar substitute (corn syrup or honey) should be used to one part of juice. If the pectin collects in two or three masses, use 2/3 to 3/4 as much sugar or substitute as juice. If it collects in several small particles use half. If the presence of pectin is not shown as described, it should be supplied by the addition of the juice of slightly under-ripe fruits, such as sour apples, currants, crab-apples, green grapes, green gooseberries or wild cherries.
   Measure the juice and sugar or substitute. Sugar may be spread on a platter and heated. Do not let it scorch. When the juice begins to boil add the sugar or substitute. Boil rapidly. This is important. The jelly point is reached when the juice drops as one mass from the side of a spoon or when two drops run together and fall as one from the side of the spoon. Skim the juice, pour into sterilized glasses and cool as quickly as possible. Currant and green grape juice require 8 to 10 minutes boiling to reach the jelly point while all other juices require from 20 to 30 minutes.
   When the jelly is cold pour over the surface a layer of hot paraffin. A toothpick run around the edge while the paraffin is still hot will give a better seal. Protect the paraffin with a cover of metal or paper.

FIG. 35. Straining fruit juice.

Three or more extractions of juice may be made from fruit. When the first extraction is well drained cover the pulp with water and let it simmer 30 minutes. Drain, and test juice for pectin. For the third extraction proceed in the same manner. The juice resulting from the second and third extractions may be combined. If the third extraction shows much pectin a fourth extraction may be made. The first pectin test should be saved for comparison with the others.
   If the second, third or fourth extraction of juice is found thinner than the first extraction, boil it until it is as thick as the first, then add the sugar or substitute called for.


   The test for pectin is desirable, but it is not essential. A large percentage of housewives make jelly without this test, and satisfactory results may be obtained without it if care is taken to follow directions and to use the right fruits. For the inexperienced jelly maker the safe rule is to confine jelly-making to the fruits which are ideal for the purpose. These include currants, sour apples, crab-apples, under-ripe grapes, quinces, raspberries, blackberries, blueberries, wild cherries, and green gooseberries. These contain pectin and acid in sufficient quantities.
   In making jelly without the alcohol test, with the juice of currants and under-ripe grapes use 1 cup of sugar to 1 cup of juice. With raspberries, blackberries, blueberries, sour apples, crab-apples, quinces, wild cherries and green gooseberries use 1/4 cup of sugar to 1 cup of juice. This applies to the first extraction of juice and to the later extractions when they have been boiled to the consistency of the first extraction.
   Satisfactory jelly may be made by using 1/2 to 3/4 cup corn syrup or honey to 1 cup of fruit juice, following the general directions for jelly making. The pr9oportion of sugar substitute will depend upon the acidity and pectin content of the fruit juice. On account of the water content of the corn syrup the juice will require a little longer cooking before the jelly point is reached.
   Fruits which contain pectin but lack sufficient acid are peach, pear, quince, sweet apple and guava. With these acid may be added by the use of juice of sour apples, crab-apples or under-ripe grapes.
   Strawberries and cherries have acidity but lack pectin. The pectin may be supplied by the addition of the juice of sour apples, crab-apples or under-ripe grapes.


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